Carnitine metabolism

Carnitine metabolism

Carnitine, the L-beta-hydroxy-gamma-N-trimethylaminobutyric acid, is synthesized primarily in the liver and kidneys from lysine and methionine. Carnitine covers an important role in lipid metabolism, acting as an obligatory cofactor for beta-oxidation of fatty acids by facilitating the transport of long-chain fatty acids across the mitochondrial membrane as acylcarnitine esters. Furthermore, since carnitine behaves as a shuttle for acetyl groups from inside to outside the mitochondrial membrane, it covers a key role in glucose metabolism and assists in fuel-sensing. A reduction of the fatty acid transport inside the mitochondria results in the cytosolic accumulation of triglycerides, which is implicated in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance.

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